On the eve of the new United Nations Climate Change Conference, the two most important policy documents in China’s carbon peak, carbon neutral and “1+N” policy system that have received much attention have been released successively, and China’s dual-carbon roadmap has gradually become clear.
On October 25, Xinhua News Agency issued the “Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on the Complete, Accurate and Comprehensive Implementation of the New Development Concept to Do a Good Job in Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutrality” (hereinafter referred to as the “Opinions”). On October 26, the State Council issued the “Carbon Peaking Action Plan by 2030” (hereinafter referred to as the “Plan”).
These two documents are programmatic documents for the Chinese government to implement the dual-carbon goal, and are also regarded as the documents headed by “1” and “N” in the “1+N” policy system.
These two documents reaffirmed China’s previous commitments to achieve carbon peaks in 2030 and carbon neutrality in 2060, and proposed a more detailed implementation path and stage goals.
The so-called “1+N” policy system, according to the person in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission, “The opinions issued by the Party Central Committee and the State Council, as a ‘1’, are in charge of the long-term management. In the carbon peak carbon neutrality ‘1+N’ policy system Play a leading role; the opinions will form a top-level design that runs through the two phases of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality with the carbon peaking action plan before 2030.’N’ includes sub-fields such as energy, industry, transportation, urban and rural construction, etc. Industry carbon peak implementation plan, as well as technological support, energy security, carbon sink capacity, fiscal and financial price policy, standard measurement system, inspection and evaluation, and other guarantee plans. A series of documents will establish clear goals, reasonable division of labor, strong measures, and cohesion. An orderly carbon peak and carbon neutral policy system.”
In the Opinions on Carbon Neutrality at the Peak of Carbon, it is proposed that energy consumption per unit of GDP will be reduced by 13.5% compared with 2020 by 2025; carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be reduced by 18% compared with 2020; the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption Reach about 20%; the forest coverage rate reaches 24.1%, and the forest stock volume reaches 18 billion cubic meters.
By 2030, carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be reduced by more than 65% compared to 2005; non-fossil energy consumption will reach about 25%, and the total installed capacity of wind and solar power will reach 1.2 billion kilowatts; forest coverage will reach about 25%. The forest stock volume reached 19 billion cubic meters, and the carbon dioxide emissions reached the peak and achieved a steady decline.
By 2060, the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption will reach more than 80%, and the goal of carbon neutrality will be successfully achieved.
The “Carbon Peak Action Plan” is regarded as the document headed by “N” under the “1+N” policy system, and focuses on planning ten major actions, including energy green and low-carbon transformation actions, energy-saving, carbon-reduction and efficiency-enhancing actions, and industrial Area Carbon Peak Action, Urban and Rural Construction Carbon Peak Action, Green and Low-Carbon Transportation Action, Circular Economy Boosting Carbon Reduction Action, Green and Low-Carbon Technology Innovation Action, Carbon Sink Capability Consolidation and Improvement Action, Green and Low-Carbon National Action, Regional Echelon Orderly carbon peaking action and related policy guarantees.
In the specific actions formulated in the “Carbon Peak Action Plan”, requirements are set for the goals of various related industries in 2030. Some of these indicators, such as the proportion of non-fossil energy, wind power, photovoltaic installed capacity, and carbon emission intensity per unit of GDP, have been expressed in previous commitments and policy documents, and some new detailed targets have also been proposed.
The goal of energy structure transformation has always been the top priority of dual-carbon work. In this plan, it is again emphasized that coal consumption should be reasonably controlled during the 14th Five-Year Plan period and will gradually decrease during the 15th Five-Year Plan period. The position of coal power is to “promote the transition to basic supportability and system-regulated power sources”, and put forward requirements for cross-regional power transmission, strictly control the scale of cross-regional renewable energy power supporting coal power, and build new channels for renewable energy power In principle, the ratio shall not be less than 50%.
The hydropower target is clear for the first time. According to the plan, approximately 40 million kilowatts of hydropower installed capacity will be added during the “14th Five-Year Plan” and “15th Five-Year Plan” periods. This is the first time that the national level has clarified the development goals of hydropower installed capacity in 2025 and 2030. The previous data is that by the end of 2020, my country’s installed hydropower capacity was 37.16 million kilowatts (including 31.49 million kilowatts of pumped storage installed capacity).
In terms of new energy and nuclear power, there is no new change in the caliber of the plan. By 2030, wind power and photovoltaic installed capacity will reach 1.2 billion kilowatts or more, and nuclear power will be actively developed in a safe and orderly manner.
In terms of the construction of new power systems, with the increase in the proportion of new energy sources, the plan emphasizes the promotion of a large-scale optimization of clean power resources, and emphasizes the comprehensive regulation capabilities of the power system. This includes the construction of flexible power sources, as well as the guidance of self-supplied power plants, traditional High-energy industrial loads, industrial and commercial interruptible loads, electric vehicle charging networks, virtual power plants, etc. participate in system regulation.
In terms of energy storage, the target of new energy storage installed capacity reaching more than 30 million kilowatts by 2025, and about 120 million kilowatts of pumped storage power plants in 2030, which has been previously proposed in relevant documents, is reiterated in the plan and put forward. The provincial power grid basically has the goal of 5% or more peak load response capabilities.
Among other actions, there are also some key indicators proposed in the plan. In the carbon peaking action in the industrial sector, the petrochemical industry proposed: By 2025, the domestic crude oil processing capacity should be controlled within 1 billion tons, and the capacity utilization rate of main products should be increased to more than 80%;
In the urban and rural construction carbon peaking action, it is proposed that by 2025, new urban buildings will fully implement the green building standards; the renewable energy replacement rate of urban buildings will reach 8%, and the roof photovoltaic coverage of new public institutions and new factory buildings will reach 50%;
In the field of transportation, the prospects of new energy vehicles are further clarified. The plan proposes that by 2030, the proportion of new energy and clean energy-powered vehicles will reach about 40%; the proportion of green travel in cities with a permanent population of more than 1 million in urban areas will not be low. Less than 70%.
In terms of circular economy, the plan puts forward indicators of resource recycling from many aspects. By 2025, the annual utilization of bulk solid waste will reach about 4 billion tons, and by 2030, the annual utilization will reach about 4.5 billion tons; by 2025, scrap iron and steel, scrap copper, scrap aluminum, scrap lead, scrap zinc, and waste paper , Waste plastics, waste rubber, waste glass and other 9 major renewable resources, the recycling amount will reach 450 million tons, and reach 510 million tons by 2030; by 2025, the municipal solid waste classification system will be basically sound, and the proportion of domestic waste resource utilization will increase To about 60%. By 2030, complete coverage of municipal solid waste classification will be achieved, and the resource utilization ratio of solid waste will increase to 65%.
The energy structure, resource endowment, and industrial structure of various regions in China vary greatly. The carbon peak plan also emphasizes that each region must accurately grasp its own development positioning, combine the actual economic and social development of the region and the resource and environmental endowment, and adhere to classified policies, local conditions, and upper and lower linkages. Promote carbon peaks in an orderly manner.
The plan requires regions with a lighter industrial structure and a better energy structure to strive to achieve carbon peaks first, and regions with a heavier industrial structure and a coal energy structure and resource-based regions should put energy conservation and carbon reduction in a prominent position, and vigorously optimize and adjust the industrial structure and Energy structure, gradually realize the decoupling of carbon emission growth from economic growth, and strive to achieve the peak of carbon simultaneously with the whole country.
Specifically, the plan divides the main regions of the country into three categories in the order of peaking targets: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and other regions should play the role of high-quality development power source and growth pole, and take the lead in promoting comprehensive economic and social development. Green transformation. The Yangtze River Economic Belt, the Yellow River Basin, and the National Ecological Civilization Experimental Zone must strictly implement the ecological priority and green development strategy orientation, and take the lead in the country in terms of green and low-carbon development. The central, western and northeastern regions should focus on optimizing the energy structure, and in accordance with the requirements of industrial policies and dual control of energy consumption, orderly promote the concentration of high-energy-consuming industries to areas with advantages in clean energy, and actively cultivate green development momentum.
In the “Carbon Peak Carbon Neutrality Work Opinions” and the “Carbon Peak Action Plan”, the working principles of “preventing risks” and “safe, orderly and safe carbon reduction” were emphasized respectively. It is required to properly handle the relationship between pollution reduction and carbon reduction and energy security, industrial chain supply chain security, food security, and the normal life of the people, and effectively deal with the economic, financial, and social risks that may accompany the green and low-carbon transition, prevent overreaction, and ensure safe carbon reduction .
The plan also proposes that, based on my country’s energy resource endowment, which is rich in coal, poor in oil and less gas, insists on first standing and then breaking, stabilizing the stock, expanding the increase, and ensuring the national energy security and economic development as the bottom line, and striving for time to realize the gradual replacement of new energy. , To promote the smooth transition of energy low-carbon transition. The plan also emphasizes once again to avoid “one size fits all” electricity curtailment or sports “carbon reduction.”